Personality Disorder Definition
Personality disorders are persistent behaviors that manifest themselves in rigid reactions to different life situations, and thus deviate from the flexible and in the particular situation appropriate behavior.
Personality Disorder Basics
To understand the personality disorder, it makes sense to first get a rough overview of physiological personality traits.
Through research in various populations, it has been possible to identify the so-called big five model or the five personality factors that play a role in the essential description of a personality:
- Extraversion (from sociable to reserved)
- Conscientiousness (from thorough to negligent)
- Openness (from creative to unimaginative)
- Compatibility (from peaceful to contentious)
- Neuroticism or emotional stability (from relaxed to over-sensitive)
If the personality is disturbed, the following criteria are met:
- One of the above features is highly dominant
- This dominance of the characteristic leads to a disturbance of the subjective state of health, but also to social behavior and the professional situation
- This disorder has a stability and
- Affects the daily life, so that it can no longer be done in the normal sense.
Personality Disorder Epidemiology
The data on the prevalence vary greatly. For Germany there is an average prevalence of 11%, in psychiatric treated groups the prevalence is much higher and is 40-50%.
Personality Disorder Etiology and pathogenesis
There are several theories about the development of personality disorder.
The Psychodynamic Model
Personality disorders are caused by disorders of the individual stages of development. In the oral phase , more dependent and passive-aggressive personality disorders are acquired. In the anal phase, however, compulsive and rigid disorders. Disruptions in the phallic phase lead to the inability to intimate bonds.
In times of improved examination techniques, of course, neurobiological aspects can not be denied. Children who later experience personality disorders show signs of “minimal brain dysfunction” as early as childhood, ie mild neurological abnormalities, generalized changes in the EEG , behavioral abnormalities and morphological changes in the frontal cortex .
The genetic disposition also plays a major role in personality disorders. This is especially true for dissocial disorders and borderline disorders.
Personality Disorder Care
When caring for people with personality disorders, it is important to consider how the caregiver should react. Especially with a histrionic personality disorder, it is often not easy to decide whether to give the patient the attention he requires or ignore his concerns. Within the team, all the patient’s utterances and actions should be openly communicated, as the manipulative facet of the personality disorder can easily lead to divisions within the team.